Resetting PRAM / NVRAM


PRAM and NVRAM reset may be necessary if any of the following issues are occurring 

  • Sound/Speaker issues

  • Resolution and Display Scaling

  • Startup Disk/Boot up problems

  • Mouse/Trackpad/Keyboard inconsistency 

  • Application Fonts and Dialog Boxes


  1. Shut down the Mac

  2. Turn it on and immediately press and hold: Option, Command, P, and R

  3. You can release the keys after about 20 seconds, during which the Mac might appear to restart

    1. On Mac computers that play a startup sound, release the keys after the second startup sound

    2. On iMac Pro, release the keys after the Apple logo appears and disappears for the second time

If your Mac is using a firmware password, this key combination does nothing or causes your Mac to start up from macOS Recovery. To reset PRAM/NVRAM, first turn off the firmware password.

If there are any questions or issues please contact IT Services